Modern engines have a way to reduce fuel injection when the engine is at danger of over-revving. So, with modern computer-controlled engines, there is no way to accelerate past the redline. What you described will absolutely not damage the engine or the transmission, but probably isn't recommended to be done on a cold engine too often.
The most typical way to over-rev an engine on a manual transmission car happens when downshifting an engine to a gear that causes the RPMs to go past the redline. You don't have a real manual transmission but rather a computer-controlled CVT, so I suspect if you first accelerate to 100 km/h and then try to downshift to first virtual 'gear', it will not do the downshift.
So, abusing your engine and/or transmission is indeed very hard with your setup.