There is not enough side wall on the 19 inch I rarely use chain as I have 4 wheel drive and live in So Calif. But chains wrap around and would damage an extreamly low profile tire perhaps you might want to rent a car or take your friends car up to the mountains if that's the reason you need chains. I think the cables will wrap and damage your rims as well.
For the technical purposes of things, it really wouldn't matter whether you torque them on or off the ground. The wheel would be torqued without issue. The reason you should torque them on the ground is a safety concern. You are putting a large amount of twisting force on the wheel, which in turn is applied throughout the vehicle. This force is enough to ...
I’d be inclined to use a volatile lubricant, penetrating oil or WD40 perhaps. That would facilitate torquing the nuts but wouldn’t leave much/any residue that could cause bad things to happen in service.
A lubricant should be applied to wheel bolts unless OEM service information states otherwise. Basically when torqueing a bolt the torque does not indicate clamping force. It indicates the resistance to overcome friction. And that friction will result in a torque reading at which the bolt will not have achieved the correct clamping force. By reducing the ...
You should get the alignment checked with the new wheel and tire. That will also determine if any other work is needed. I did similar damage and needed a lower A frame replaced ( it was aluminum , a steel A frame would be less likely to have damage.)
It would be better to see a picture with the hubcap removed, but from what I can see I would only drive to a shop to get a new wheel. The sidewall is distorted and although it's still holding air the handling and performance of the tire will be affected. I would be concerned that the bead may separate at some point.
Also, there will most likely be other ...
would it be safe to still drive for now?
NO absolutely not safe. Do not drive on it.
There are sharp edges exposed and they can and will cut into the sidewall of the tire sooner or later depending on many factors.
You could limp it into a tire shop if you go slow and be careful.
To specifically answer your questions: yes, there could be other factors that could have caused the wheel to come off like this. Judging by what I can see the in the picture the brake rotor is still there, and likely the studs are also still present.
Two most likely reason why the wheel came off are related to how the lug nuts were installed, so:
Lug nuts ...