While it sounds very loud, to me it just sounds like the starter solenoid going in and out due to either a flat battery or a bad connection at the battery.
You can hear the starter turn the engine over a few times, but then there isn’t enough power to keep the starter turning and the solenoid engaged.
Presumably the engine isn’t running at this point?
I had the same issue with my MK6 Golf. The problem was the battery. It was almost empty after the car sat some time. The not working electronics are also a hint in this direction.
Try charging the battery before replacing anything, sometimes this helps. If its defective you need a new one.
I had a similar issue, it sounded like it was coming from the throttle body or maybe something under the dash board (maybe both) mine ended up being the positive battery terminal, check the ground as well.
I'm still curious what would cause that noise though.