I have had that done several times in a new 2011 Toyota Yaris I bought (I sold it in 2016).
The car manual clearly stated that 5W-20 oil should be used, but the dealership sometimes for some strange reason put 5W-30 oil in there.
I didn't notice any additional fuel consumption. Most likely the 5W-30 oil caused slight additional fuel consumption but it was lost in the noise.
No engine damage or excessive oil consumption either during my ownership period. For fun, in summer 2022 I googled for the registration number of my car and I saw it was for sale again, at a quite high asking price indeed. So I suspect it didn't suffer any damage from the use of 5W-30 oil in the long run either.
The 2011 Yaris had variable cam timing both on intake and exhaust side. I wasn't aware of any problem in that mechanism due to incorrect oil weight.
You might want to inform the oil change place of the correct oil specifications next time you change the oil. Weight isn't the only one. For example, my current 2016 Toyota RAV4 hybrid requires not only 0W-20 but also ILSAC GF-5.
However, if the oil light is on, you should do something about it. Either it's a yellow oil level light (in that case check oil level, if you already checked it then putting correct weight oil in there is a good next guess), or a red oil pressure light (in which case you should have the car immediately towed for repair). But if it's a maintenance reminder message or light, in that case it may just need resetting which the oil change place didn't probably do.