First to make sure I'm using the correct terminology: for a manual transmission, front-wheel drive Mk4 2004 Volkswagen Jetta, are axle shaft / drive axle / CV axle the same thing?
I have been experiencing re-occurring grinding noises when turning steering wheels, usually observed when turning big at low speeds (similar to the kind of turning test you do when buying used cars). I ended up replacing front left "axle shaft" in 2011 and "CV axle/boot" again in 2012 after ~1000 miles.
I replaced front right "axle" in 2018 and am now having grinding noise which was diagnosed to be the front right "drive shaft/strut mount" in 2020 after ~15,000 miles.
I also had the front strut assembly replaced in 2016 and again in 2018 after ~10,000 miles.
All three seem to me pretty short lifespans for these components. What are some reasons to cause this? Bad parts? Bad driving habits? If it matters, we live in snowy states with a lot of road salt in winter. We always start in first gear, do not ride clutches, and do not put hands on the gear.