I recharge my car battery on the Ford Fiesta 2006 and the car started first time. I let it run for a good 10 minutes then discovered central locking wasn’t working on the drivers door. I tried reprogramming and tried to start the car again, and it was not turning over at all, only dashboard lights were coming on.
The symptoms you report are those of a partially or fully discharged battery. Ten minutes' running is insufficient to even partially charge a discharged battery.
To troubleshoot, you must start with a fully charged battery installed in the car. Either put the battery you have on a suitable charger for enough time, or replace the battery you have with a new, fully-charged battery. Remember that "putting it on a suitable charger for enough time" will fail if the battery you have is defective and cannot hold a charge. How old is the battery?
With a fully-charged battery in the car, see if the engine starts. If it does start, the main issue was the battery in the car was insufficiently charged or was defective.
You won't be able to further troubleshoot why the battery might have been insufficiently charged (a problem with the charging system, or not driving the vehicle enough to keep the battery charged) or defective (likely due to age, but possible even when new) until you have a fully-charged good-condition battery in the vehicle.