It all pivots around water's boiling point of 212F (100C) at standard temperature and pressure (close enough to standard outdoor conditions).
Your thermostat has a setting of 160, 180, 190 or as high as 210. Note that this is near the boiling point of water at STP, but, the cooling system is pressurized. You can see the coolant temperature on the engine's "Temp" gauge. Note that it has a happy place it normally lives. Once it's there, the engine is at operating temperature. If your engine doesn't behave that way, it may have a stuck thermostat. Stuck wide open, obviously, since if it was stuck closed, you'd be forced to fix it.
Water inside the air passages of your engine (pistons, intake manifold etc.) is negligible; no problem there.
Engine oil gets pretty hot - hotter than coolant. In fact, performance cars have "engine oil to coolant heat exchangers", where the coolant cools off the oil. So it's a safe bet that when the car reaches operating temperature, the oil has already spent some time above 212F, and any water therein has boiled off and been pulled into the PCV system (positive crankcase ventilation) which is designed to prevent build-up of explosive gases.
Manual Transmission oil - if you have a stick shift, there is little you can do, but stick shift transmissions have very little ventilation, and they don't run hot, so they have very little condensation.
Automatic transmission oil - Automatics make heat from operating in torque-converting mode (non-lockup). This applies to around-town driving with low speeds and lots of start-stops. However, the car does not leave transmission warm-up to chance. The transmission has an oil cooler - but it's not oil-to-air like you'd think; it's oil-to-coolant. It releases heat into the engine coolant, with the amusing side effect that if the transmission oil was cold, it's warmed by the engine coolant to at least its setoff temperature. Fully warming the engine then doing around-town driving should quickly drive off any water in the ATF.
Power steering is a closed system; little opportunity for condensation.
A/C freon is a closed system. The water in your A/C evaporator is supposed to happen.
Driving the water out of your coolant is not something you would want to do.
Ditto windshield washer fluid.
Getting water out of your exhaust system is very hard, because the combustion products are H2O and CO2, so there's a lot more water in there than in ambient air. Some cars have an electric smog pump that pumps ambient air into the catalytic converters (so the engine can run slightly rich to make the reducing cats happy, and then slightly lean to make the oxidizing cats happy). I suppose you could rig it to run the smog pump for 15 minutes after the engine is shut down. I just replace my exhaust system every 12 years or so when it rusts.