Can a new vehicle from a plant be produced without a catalytic converter? Is it possible? I am a lecturer at a college in Zimbabwe, and my students recently asked this question, so I am researching.
You don't have to have an catalytic converter, they aren't required for the operation of an engine. Catalytic converters use chemical reactions to reduce the pollution in internal combustion engine exhaust, and are emissions control devices which are required by regulation in many countries. So it's technologically possible to build a car without one, it just may not be legal depending on where you are.
That will depend on the market regulations for the target country ie which country that vehicle will be sold in.
Cars built to be sold in Europe & US have to meet stringent regulations as regards emissions so they are required to have a catalytic converter.
Other countries may not (yet) have that requirement, so a "cat"may not be necessary.
The large car manufacturers have been known to "use" this - when tighter emissions legislation came in in the Eu, some car manufacturers had stocks of engine that were no longer fit for the EU market. These were then sold in other markets...
Yes, in theory. The government doesn't care how your engine hits the required emissions numbers. As an engine designer, you get a tabula rasa, and are free to build any system that will do the job.
Catalytic converters seem to be a winning choice for most if not all engine builders, because engine building is largely a costing game and cats are the easiest way to hit a price point. A big part of why they hit a price point is that they are already mass produced and readily available both in prototyping and in mass production at scale.
No Telsa has a cat. While you could bolt one to a Tesla it would serve no purpose.