3 of 4 of my wheels have this very particular circular scratch around the center of the wheel with a diameter the same as my bolt pattern. I don’t see what could have caused them. The wheels have a substantial inward curve there so it had to be something that managed to get into the dip in the center of the wheel.
I purchased new winter tires this year although I didn’t notice these marks until months after. I suppose they could have been introduced when the tires were installed but I’d be surprised to have missed them.
I think a picture is the only way to describe this.