I was told by my auto mechanic that there is a significant issue with my car - something is broken (no clue how to translate the name of this part into English). He sent me below images as a proof. I honestly cannot make anything of it. Could you advise if you do see any major issue that would require replacement? Thanks!
The issue I would be concerned about is the obvious shiny spot where the rubber suspension stop has hit the frame quite a few times. This an indication of worn struts, springs or both. The rubber stop normally only contacts the frame on the rare occasions the suspension bottoms out. This would occur when hitting a large pot hole in the pavement or very rough unimproved roads.
Your CV boots seem to be cracked, torn, or compromised in some way and are leaking. This means that grease is escaping to the outside and leaving your CV joints with less-than-adequate lubrication, as well as exposing them to dirt and dust from the outside. This causes contamination and eventually failure of the CV joints.
From the image, your CV boots definitely require replacement, and depending on how long and how severe they've been leaking, so will the CV joints.