Great question! Taking a few minutes to think through this logically should come up with something. First of all, realise that a larger battery with a higher amperage (CCA) will not cause any problems on the drawing end. In other words, you're not sending too much electricity to some component or something. The higher amperage simply means that more energy is available, not that more energy is flowing through the components. I'm sure you already knew that; just making sure everyone is on the same page.
Secondly, you've got to realise that it doesn't take any more energy to charge up a bigger battery than a smaller battery. That is, provided they have had equal draws. The difference, of course, is that the bigger battery can get uncharged further, resulting in a larger draw on the alternator.
Basically, this means that your alternator will have to work harder to recharge the battery, but simply because the larger battery was able to output more juice. Since the alternator wear is usually due to age, the answer is yes, the bigger battery will wear down your alternator more.
That being said, it probably won't be significant, unless you regularly leave your radio running overnight, because your alternator is always running when the car is running; the only difference is that it will be demanding more current from the alternator to recharge the battery. Therefore, as far as I and my research are concerned, the wear is