Although diesel runaway is not so common...
... the consequences are spectacularly catastrophic.
On old-school engines, I can understand that there isn't much you can do about it except try to cut off the air supply.
But what about modern engines?
Since modern engines usually have a computer orchestrating between various sensors and actuators, it sounds quite plausible to have the computer detect the presence of a runaway condition and turn off the fuel injectors and (hopefully) avert disaster.
Of course, cutting off fuel supply doesn't guarantee that runaway won't occur (if the engine is running on oil vapor) but it handles a possible failure mode.
Is it possible to define a logical condition based on certain engine operation characteristics (e.g. coolant temperature, speed, throttle) that would serve to represent an engine in runaway-mode?
One important factor to consider is that the logical condition used should not give a false positive (e.g. it cuts off fuel supply because the engine is under severe load while a fully-loaded vehicle is going uphill)
How are vehicle manufacturers doing it today, if at all?
Assuming runaway can be reliably detected by an engine computer, what actuation mechanisms could it deploy to do its best to stop runaway?
I'm thinking along the lines of cutting off air supply, fuel supply, oil supply and preventing the engine from combusting.