You've asked a general question that has a few too many variables to answer concretely (e.g., type of turbo, application, environment, maintenance schedules, etc.) I'm going to propose a variant of your original question and answer that:
Is it possible for an original equipment turbo to live as long as the rest of the car?
The answer to that question is: yes, it is possible but not if you're careless.
Let's think about a turbo system at its very highest levels and try to find possible failure points:
- Hot exhaust gas spins the turbine blades (can your exhaust temperatures exceed spec, e.g. due to a bad tune?).
- The shaft connecting the turbine side to the compressor side spins incredibly fast (bearings properly lubricated? Using what source of oil? Are the bearings cooled via another mechanism as well?)
- The compressor side compresses the intake air (is the intake air well filtered? Is there any other possible material that could get into those blades and chew them up?)
Those are some obvious ways to break a turbo. However, there are no magic spells. It's possible that your particular turbo will have an engineering flaw that breaks some thousands of miles before the engine falls out of the car. You can only work the variables under your control.
On my car, for instance, I have 180K miles on the original turbo. I have a good air filter and have removed a piece of the piping that has been known to fail and get chewed up in the turbo. I watch my oil consumption and let the engine take a cool down lap after boost (a relaxed drive through the neighborhood does wonders). While this might not prevent all possible failures, it has certainly avoided dumb failures that I can prevent.