Is it a "plain old" inline filter with just two connections? If so you're probably fine. If the filter is one of the plastic see through ones you might look to see if the media appears to have moved (for the fun of it, not because there is anything I can think of that you would do it had).
The flow direction on the filter is probably more about efficiency and construction than about filtering effectiveness. The consequences of installing it backwards would be things like the reversed pressure differential across the filter causing the media to move and restrict flow.
Some fuel systems return unused fuel back to the fuel tank (VW diesels, and Bosch fuel injection systems are the ones I'm familiar with), if they were to run the return fuel through the filter I suppose there could be some problems if the pathway allowed bypassing the filter with the return fuel. The VW diesel filters have a thermostatic valve that decides if the return fuel goes back into the filter or back to the fuel tank.