Your brakes are pretty much done. You won't truly be able to tell how much friction material is left until they are pulled apart, but really, there isn't much left. One thing you can look at is there should be an indicator on one end of the brake pad which is affectionately known as a "squealer". When the brake pads get worn enough, the squealer comes in contact with the rotor face and starts making a squealing noise which would get your attention. You can look at the squealer and see how far off of the rotor it is. If it's in contact with the face already, it's time to change the pads.
Now is a good time to change them as there isn't any damage to your rotors. You can take a wire brush to these (whether manual brush or rotary brush attached to a drill) and break the glaze which is on them, then reuse. There doesn't look to be any significant wear to them, which would mean they should still be in spec. The light pulsing you are feeling is probably just the rotors and not the ABS. Once the glaze is knocked off of these and the fresh pads are bedded, you probably won't feel this anymore.
If you really wanted to, you could get a fresh set of rotors for your brakes while replacing the pads. This is probably the easiest way to ensure you'll not have any issues with the pulsing you are talking about. Either busting the glaze on the current rotors or getting new ones are both perfectly acceptable ways to do this work.