tl;dr: no, a 1:1 ratio is only possible in imaginary perfect laboratory conditions.
Or is the relationship more complicated?
It's a bit more complicated but for perfectly understandable reasons.
NOTE: I'm intentionally leaving intercoolers and bags of ice out of the discussion below. They are germane to boost discussions but should be covered under a different question.
Let's assume the engine is set up correctly to take advantage of the
turbocharger, i.e. the injectors have enough capacity, and fuel/air
mix remains the same.
The most important missing assumption is a critical one: constant temperature.
Let's back up all the way to the core of the engine: the combustion. The air and fuel are mixing at an approximately 14:1 ratio, igniting, expanding and pressing outwards to make chemical potential energy into kinetic.
But what is that ratio really? It compares the molecules of air to the molecules of fuel. Get those out of balance and the combustion reaction is no longer at peak efficiency (note: we are going to see this word again).
Given that background, what does boost do? In theory, it's a molecule inserter: your boost mechanism is trying to go get more air molecules to which the engine will add an increased number of fuel molecules. Combust that augmented mixture with its increased amount of chemical energy and you'll get more kinetic energy, right?
Yes, but not as much as you might think. You've already run into Boyle's Law. Even. If you have a perfect air molecule scooper, just forcing those molecules into the engine is going to increase their temperature. The engine computer is going to have to correct for that temperature by adding more fuel (as a sort of coolant), retarding timing, etc. Failing to deal with this temperature will lead to put the engine on the knocking curve which eventually terminates in a disastrous transformation into an external combustion engine (i.e., important bits will come out).
It gets worse. Remember that perfect molecule scooping boost mechanism? Not possible. It also has an efficiency factor that is less than 100%. It's going to grab air and compress it but, unfortunately, it increases the temperature even faster than Boyle's Law (efficiency is less than 100%). This engages the other terms of the Law: density of the intake air will drop with temperature: it's both hotter and there are fewer molecules.
The result of all this back of the envelope hand waving is that, if you're really focused on wanting 50% more power, you're going to need more than 50% as much air and more than 50% more fuel.
In short, 100% efficiency is the theoretical maximum but is only achievable in Perfect World. That said, small boost systems can come much closer to 1:1 more easily than high boost.