What is the purpose of the hardware shown below?

These clips or shims are found on the caliper bracket on disc brakes on every car I've replaced the brakes on.

Is there a correct name for this hardware?

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Some call them 'anti-rattle clips or retention clips

They keep your pads within a certain tolerance of variance regarding the touch points on the disk. As well, they prevent the pads from rattling as you drive down the road and the pucks within your calipers are retracted just a bit from your disc.

They apply a bit of spring tension on the pads at all times.

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    It might not hurt to point out that the reason they are so important is when anything in a disc brake system rattles, you hear it as a squeak or squeal. No one wants that. – Lathejockey81 Aug 19 '16 at 0:59

Nah. They provide a highly polished friction-free surface (that gets replaced with a pad change if you buy the premium kit) that allows free pad movement, good retraction (the only thing that does this is the square piston seal that relaxes and brings the pads out of direct contact with the rotor -- not a lot of force).

I always use quality brake grease on these surfaces, but these clips will always glide better than a cast-iron caliper slot that rusts. Even if you clean them with a wire brush (I do) they will still rust more than these inserts.

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