I recently had my front pads and rotor replaced on my 2012 Jeep Patriot but within one week I heard a thumping sound when breaking. The repair shop warrantied out both the rotors, and when the problem came back replaced the pads as well. This appeared to work. I began to hear the same sound in the rear wheels. I had my back rotors replaced and back pads warrantied out and within a few days I hear the same noise. Not sure what the next steps would be, the noise is quite frustrating.
Have you checked if the shop accidentally crimped the brake lines that connect to the calipers themselves? This sounds like your calipers might be sticking and not releasing all the way out so the brake pads constantly rub the rotors causing both the brake pads and the rotors to wear out in a matter of a few weeks. This could be caused by old calipers sticking, something in the break lines, crimped brake line at the caliper connection, and a few other caliper related issues.
Is this a dealership that has a certified technician working on your vehicle?
If this is a hole in the wall place, you really don't know who is doing the work and what they are doing. It sounds like they may have screwed up the brake lines or can't figure out how to do the brakes correctly in general. You also need to bleed the brakes on that vehicle with a bi-directional scan tool. The Anti-lock brake system is always active on those and it's just a good practice anyway. If they have a Starscan scan tool, there is a function on the tool for this. Either way, your only options are to:
Keep taking it back (If they broke it, they will keep lying).
Take it to a dealer and have it inspected for around $100.00
Pay a personal reliable technician to give a glance.
The thing with your situation is that, they did the work and now your car doesn't function correctly. However this could be coincidental. Just bad timing or something of that nature. I've done work on interior, watched a customer leave and comeback complaining that now his car is overheating within hours of leaving. That's just really bad timing, but it obviously wasn't my fault if I never even messed with it. So, moral of that story is keep that in mind.
This symptom can happen when the lug nuts are not properly torqued in the correct order. There is a pattern of tightening the lug nuts that depends on the number of lugs there are. If the order is not followed, AND/OR if the correct torque is not applied to each lug nut, the rotor will become warped.
Sometimes this can be fixed by loosening and re-torquing the lug nuts in the correct order. Essentially, the shop may have damaged your rotors. If they use an air drill you may wish to ask if they use torque air drills and what pattern the nuts are tightened in. I watched many shops use air drills on my vehicle during safety inspections and never saw the correct pattern used nor saw any tech adjust a setting on the drill.
Another contributing factor is that lug nuts need to be re-torqued after a certain number of miles driving after remounting the wheel.
This is why I like to use my car dealer for service. My particular vehicle brand's factory-trained techs use torque wrenches, also known as "torque sticks." I bought one when I did my brakes (instead of borrowing one) because I'm not driving back to the shop just to re-torque my lug nuts after a safety inspection or brake service.
I know this sounds too simple, but check to see if your wheel's lug nuts are tightened and torqued correctly. This happen to me as my nephew and I changed my rotors and pads. Th next day I heard a knocking and thumping back driver's side wheel when I depressed the brakes. Tightened and torqued all the wheels. I couldn't believe that was the source of the knocking/thumping noise, but it was.