I am trying to learn about engines, so my question is where do valves, camshaft etc go inside different engines? I see different engine have them in different places, base on if the engine is a inline, v-line or flat.
This will be for modern car engines. This does not necessarily include motorcycle, 2 stroke, or equipment (lawn mower), etc.. This is based on what I've seen so there may be other examples I am not aware of or have forgotten.
The cylinder head is installed on top of the block. There are a few common parts on all cylinder heads. Intake ports, Exhaust ports, combustion chambers, valves and valve springs. There are also passages for oil and coolant.
Valves will be in the cylinder head. They are held in place with the valve spring. You can see the valve stems and valve springs if you remove the valve cover.
Valves are opened by the camshaft and closed by the valve spring. The camshaft is typically in 1 of 3 locations.
In the block. In this case there is a lifter that rides on the cam shaft lobes, a push rod, and a rocker. The cam pushes the lifter, which pushes the push rod, this pushes up on one side of the rocker, which pushes down on the valve.
In the head, next to the valves. This setup has the cam, rocker, and at some point a lifter. The cam pushes the rocker, which opens the valve.
In the head, directly over the valves. In this configuration, there is a bucket over the valve and valve spring that cam touches directly.