How to not hit the car in front whatever the car? [closed]

I'm designing a 3d model of a car with some specifications.

The question that I thought of now and also is a good question as I don't personally know the answer while driving my own car is:

How can you not hit the car in front and also behind you?

For example, how do you know when you're too close to the car in front(while driving forwards) and also the car behind(while reversing)? are there any reference points, etc?

Cheers.

Once you have driven a few cars for a while you will get used to knowing from walking up to a car and getting in just how big it is. But until that time you can use some useful tricks:

• parallax: if you really want to get a good idea of distance, move your head from left to right to see how much a point on the object in front moves compared to a reference point on the front of your car
• shadows: if the sun is in the right place this can be very precise, as can
• reflections: in windows, doors or other vehicles polished paintwork

But just practice. Big truck drivers can park in spaces only a couple of inches wider than their trailer, and that's a looong way back!

As said in the other answers, each car is different, and it's mostly experience, if you don't have these little electronic helpers.

But I have one trick: Watch the light cones of your front light. As you move towards a wall or an other car, the cones become smaller and smaller, until they are ultimately as wide as your lights. So the width of the light cone (maybe together with a reflection of the light) give a good estimation on ow far away from the obstacle the lights are. There's still some experience needed, but it's quite easy. I manage to have 5cm (2") between my bumper and a wall this way. However, it only works when you can see the light cones, and of course only for the front.

Every single car is different, most of them have different steering angle, different turn radius, etc. So it's all about getting used to it. But sometimes it doesn't work, especially on a long base comfortable cars, that's why designers invented parking sensors... Many urban cars (small and maneuvrable) if you look from the top, they have really round bumper, so it doesn't really have any corners and gives plenty of a room..

With today's car designs, you need to "know where your corners are." Blind spots are preventing you from seeing how much space you really do have immediately around your vehicle, so you need to imagine, based on previous experience, how does an object look like when it's far enough away.

It is possible to have a vehicle design where you can actually see how much space you have immediately around your vehicle. Think of a bicyle or a motorcycle.