You cannot easily "tap" into any ECU/PCM. Depending on what year your vehicle is, it could be a simple set of analog gauges which you could tap into the signal line, but you'll need to do some hardware design to convert the signals to usable data.
If it's a newer vehicle, you'll have to deal with the canbus protocol and that will be very difficult.
Your best option is to get an OBD2 (ob-board diagnostics II) adapter which will allow you to capture the data the ECU/PCM is broadcasting. What it broadcasts are PIDs (programmable identifiers). For example, a PID would be speed, engine RPM, engine coolant temp, etc.
In order to get fuel consumption, you'll need to do some calculations. Fuel level/Fuel consumption is not a PID that the ECU/PCM commonly broadcasts even if it is shown on the dashboard. The dashboard/gauges will be controlled via canbus while the PIDs will be broadcast using OBD2 protocol.
With your pi you can connect to the OBD2 adapter (Get one for ~$30-$90 in amazon) via bluetooth or wifi and then read which ever PIDs you want.
CAN bus https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/CAN_bus
OBD2 Getting Started with OBD-II
Additionally, you can just get an obd2 adapter and use an android phone/tablet and run Torque Pro which will do everything you're looking for. I use this all the time in my cars when I'm at the track or testing modifications. It will do all the calculations for you for fuel mileage/consumption.
Here is a screen shot I took of Torque reading some of the available PIDs for my car.