Fun fact: the average mid-sized car tire sees ~800 revolutions per mile, so every component of a 50k mile tire must endure more than 40 million loading/unloading cycles! (note: some tires are not guaranteed for 50k miles). Source + testing information can be found in the PDF titled 'The Pneumatic Tire' on this page.
Regardless of mileage rating, all tires that can be legally fitted to commercially sold vehicles (in the US, including farm, low load, and low speed tires) are required to meet minimum standards prescribed by the Department of Transportation's (DOT) Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 139. For most tires, the requirements include: high speed endurance, mileage endurance, low inflation pressure performance, tire strength (road hazard), & bead unseating resistance testing.
To answer your question, major tire companies definitely hold their tires to internal standards that meet & exceed those prescribed by FMVSS 139, while cheaper brands will likely only meet the minimum requirements (no source). While the amount by which major brands exceed the standards will vary, and is not readily available so far as I can tell, this article indicates that Toyo recalled 585 of their Proxes 4, Proxes F24, and Nitto NT555 brand tires because, despite meeting federal regulations, they did not meet Toyo's internal dimensional tolerances.
To elaborate on FMVSS 139:
From what I understand, each test is conducted at 100°F, is repeated several times at several psi ratings up to the max pressure, and at several loads up to max load (except low inflation performance test). Each new test is conducted on a brand new tire. All testing is done in a controlled lab on a drum with a 17.6' circumference, such that 300 revolutions = 1 mile.
High speed testing lasts 90 minutes, and is based on the tires speed rating. The tests consist of 20-30 minute cycles that increment from 20 mph below speed rating up to the maximum speed rating of the tire.
Endurance testing takes place over 36 hours through a variety of different acceleration, speed, pressure, and load conditions.
Low pressure testing is similar to high speed testing, but done at highway speeds 50, 65, 75 mph with the tire at or near maximum load inflated to 20 psi.
Tire strength is tested by loading the tires contact patch onto a plunger with a set surface area. The test ends when the tire fails, or plunger forces the tire to touch the rim.
Bead unseating is done by pushing a solid block of some surface area into the sidewall of the tire up to a minimum load. Surface area and load vary depending on tire size, psi, etc. Results are Pass/Fail only.