According to this survey, electrical parts in motorcycles are the most probable to fail. Which of the electrical parts in modern motorcycles are necessary for maintaining basic driving capacity? In order to make the question more clear, I would like to make an analogy from a motor cycle to a computer program (since this is my area of expertise).
Let's assume that we are dealing with a program that can be operated via a graphical user interface (GUI) as well as a text-based command-line interface (CLI). In modern software engineering, programs tend to be very modularized with the separate modules ideally being as independent as possible from each other. In the case of this example this would mean that the GUI and CLI are separate modules that don't depend on each other (i.e. if one fails, the other one will still work).
Now consider that to operate the program we normally use the GUI, but one day the GUI stops working. Since the error cannot be fixed easily we resort to the CLI for now. The CLI might not be as comfortable to operate but the basic functionality of the program can still be accessed.
Back to my question: Which electrical parts in modern motorcycles are obligatory for maintaining the basic functionality of the motorcycle (which is the ability to drive with a reasonable degree of safety) and which parts are more like the GUI in the above example, i.e. they might make the driving experience more comfortable and (at least a bit) safer but are optional in terms of basic driving capacity.