No, there isn't any equivalent. A turbo is used because combustion engines are inherently inefficient: they convert chemical energy into mechanical energy, using an awkward detour via heat. Unfortunately, heat is pretty much the worst possible way to store energy: by the laws of thermodynamics, you can only convert it to other forms of energy if you also increase entropy. If you do the physics, you find out that the maximum efficiency is the Carnot efficiency
η = 1 − TC/TH
where TC and TH are the cold and hot temperature points of the engine cycle, i.e. surrounding air vs. combustion temperature. Note that the fraction approaches zero as TH rises*, i.e. the loss can be made quite small by letting the combustion happen at high temperature. But you can't make the temperature infinitely high, and therefore some energy is inevitably lost.
You can consider the turbo as a device that retrieves back some part of the lost energy† or, more to the point, you can just see it as a means of increasing the operation pressure and thus temperature, and thereby reducing the loss somewhat. At any rate, a turbo is just a means to adress the problem that a combustion engine is not efficient. (In practice, you won't find any engine with efficiency better than 30%.)
There's no need to do that for an electric motor – because these are efficient! They convert electric energy to mechanical via magnetic fields, and that process is far better controlled. You can approach 100% efficiency without needing to have any temperature or so approach infinity.
Sure, there are some small losses in the copper windings' electrical resistivity, in eddy currents and bearing friction, but these can be made very small by precision design.
If anything, it might make sense to search for a turbo-analogue for batteries, because these are actually the weak part of an electric car, efficiency-wise. Perhaps it would make sense to tack on some kind of waste-heat retrieval to these.
*In case you remark that the loss also vanishes if TC becomes zero: correct, but there's not much you can do about TC. Cooling the air below ambient temperature would require a giant fridge, which would of course overall just waste even more energy. Cooling after a supercharger does make sense though, because the temperature is already higher than ambient here, i.e. this can be done passively.
†In the end, “retrieving waste energy” is moot: you can always consider the motor and turbo together as one thermodynamic engine, and its total efficiency can not be better than Carnot.