I can't think of any reason why you would damage the electronics in your car, unless you touched one of your jump leads somewhere you shouldn't and short something delicate or you connect the leads back to front.
Connecting them back to front shouldn't damage electronics, as your car should have protection against this sort of thing, but it is the key thing to check - just in case.
An example I can think of might be - an aftermarket car stereo may not have surge/voltage protection and it may be connected directly to the battery, not through the ignition switch, so connecting 12v across it the wrong way may damage it. More realistically it may just blow a fuse or a diode.
As commented below, this could damage batteries - I was purely talking about electronics. Look out for your batteries :-)