This is not a physics forum, and as such I don't expect answers to explain Faraday's law of induced emf (electromotive force), which is the basic physics principle behind how an alternator is able to change mechanical energy (from the cam belt or chain) in to electrical energy that is needed in any modern car for many reasons. This works basically by creating a change in magnetic flux.
This video has a relatively good explainaton of the alternator and slip rings as I understand them.
- What are slip rings with respect to a cars alternator?
- What is their purpose in the alternator?
- How are they able to rotate freely without getting the wires all tangled up?
- Do they even rotate or are they fixed?
One of the slip rings will be positively charged and the other will be negative. I assume that they are made of some sort of metal or alloy so as to conduct a current through the alternator (do correct me if I'm wrong here) but bearing this in mind;
- How are the slip rings insulated or kept separate so as to avoid a short circuit?