Will factory 2016 Toyota Corolla "S" 17" wheels and tires fit a 2014 Scion Xd without rubbing? Both have the same 5x100 bolt pattern. Is one wider than the other? Will they rub? Speedometer will be off a little?
According to the tire size calculator rpmerf linked to, the corolla setup will be about 2.4% smaller.
What this mean?
Your speedo will read 2.4% faster than it would on your stock tire. For exemple if the speedo read 100km/h you will be going 97.6km/h in reality.
Will it fit
Most likly yes it will fit. Since your car could come with tires up to 235mm width from factory. But this of course depend of the offset of the wheel but since toyota and scion are pretty mutch the same brand it should be quite close.
What would be the stock tire dimension in 17"?
Your car model came with the following tire size in 17" : 205/50R17 and 215/50R17 according to this site. It would be best to replace to those dimension once the tires would need replacement.
They most likly fit, to be sure we would need the offset of the new wheel to be sure. The tire won't be an OEM size but when they would be worn off you should replace them with the good dimension.