You mention having a bad door latch and having to slam the door. :)
Here is what I would do:
- Remove interior panel.
- Fish out all of the loose parts. Including bolts/nuts in the bottom.
- With the window all the way up (fully closed) try and mount the motor in place.
- Bolt it in.
- Turn the ignition switch on and test it.
- Pay attention to the motor and regulator (the part that raises the window itself).
Did the motor move but the window did not?
Check the connection between the motor and regulator. A bad coupling means the motor spins but does not engage.
Check the regulator rails and cables. Are they bent? Broken?
Did the motor not move?
Check you are getting current at the motor connector by hitting the switch with the key in the on position and measuring volts with a multimeter. Anything less than 11.5V means the switch, relay or wiring is/are bad.
Go through the circuit with the volt meter. You will find the issue.
What if the regulator is bad?
Simply remove the window and place it somewhere safe (dont lay it down because it increases the chances of someone stepping on it).
Remove the regulator and install a new one.
Re-connect the rest of the parts.