I would be primarily concerned with the i-VTEC cam related mechanisms. I do not see that this engine is an interference engine.
If it were an interference engine and you floated your valves, you would have more than likely had valve to piston contact and that would have immediate effect on your motor as well as your driving experience, you would have been on the side of the road with a destroyed engine.
Description: The red arrow from left to right illistrates the pin insertion to engage the higher cam lobe profile. It engages the mid rocker arm to do so
My primary concern with what you described would be related to the engagement pin for the higher cam profile and the possibility of that shearing. I do not know or have any prediction on how accurate my concern would be, this is simply based upon my previous experience of seeing engine failure, not my experience with this particular situation or valve train type.
The Concern - if the RPM's increased so rapidly that the engagement pin for the higher RPM did not have the time to insert itself into the secondary rocker and was sheared or the pin became rounded in the process of an attempted insertion. You may not experience issues now but if it became rounded the issue could be aggravated over time and become worse. If the pin was sheared then you would have some immediate effects such as reduced power at higher RPM's because the higher cam lobe is not getting engaged.
As well, if it were sheared you would probably hear some noise coming from the top end as your would have some failed components floating about...but any lack of noise is not a guarantee that a failed event did or did not occur.
Certainly I am not claiming that any damaged occurred. I have over revved MANY engines without any effect. As well, I have over revved a motorcycle engine and completely destroyed it as well. In my experience, it typically seems to be a binary experience. The engine is destroyed or it is not. I haven't experienced a grey areas when it comes to this.
Rings - There are many vehicles that have limits that are considerably higher than the RPM your engine just spun up to. The chances of rings becoming damaged in their landings IMO is very small. If you did experience issue where there was damage you would probably experience hard starting/rough idle issues along with blowing oil smoke during operation of the motor.
Gears - The gears on your transmission are balanced by default and locked into place. Chance of damage in this scenario is low.
Connecting Rods - There are possibilities here. If you did experience an issue you would experience, at the least, a very rough idle as the stroke for some pistons would be different, at least in regards to max piston height in the bore resulting in a different compression ratio on that cylinder. Results would be rough idle at the least.
Crank journals - Very real possibility that forces your experienced overwhelmed the hydrodynamic lubrication. If you had metal to metal contact on your plain bearing to your journal your would have reduced lubrication and possibly knocking from the big end connecting rod ID (inside diameter) to the crank OD (outside diameter).
Best of luck to you on this. Hopefully everything is OK!!