You can check the rear toe in exactly the same way you check the front toe -- using the same string setup, parallel to the car's centerline, measure the distance from the string to the leading and trailing edges of the wheel.
One thing to be careful of is that the rear tread (a.k.a. track) may be different than the front. When you're lining up your string, you have to compensate in your measurements to be sure that it is parallel to the centerline. For example, on my Fozzie the rear tread is 57.1 inches but the front is 58.1. Thus, I'd initially measure out a half-inch more from the rear hub in order to get the string correctly situated.
Keep in mind that the rear toe adjustment on your car is accomplished using an eccentric bolt like the front camber bolt. It's locked with a nut that Subaru recommends be replaced when it is removed.
NASIOC has a pretty darned thorough thread on the procedure, although unfortunately the images seem to have gone missing.
Whenever you replace suspension components, you should check your alignment. I've heard that some shops may put your car on the rack for free and give you a printout of the measurements, but I'm somewhat skeptical of that.