Very possible. Letting a fuel pump run dry can quickly burn out the motor in the pump. The presence of fluid keeps the impeller from rotating as quickly and the gasoline also cools the pump as it operates. Without gas flowing through it can quickly overheat.
That being said however you may just have air in the lines. I am not sure whether your vehicle has a returnless or return style fuel system but make sure you cycle the key into on position atleast three times letting it stay in the on position for at least 5 seconds each time. This should allow your pump (if it is working) to prime the fuel system and bleed out any air.
A returnless system might have more trouble getting air out than a return style but I think your's would be a return style anyway.
Also if you wanted to check if your fuel pump is still working maybe go take the engine side of the fuel filter out slide a vacuum hose or similar over the quick connect tube (leave the fuel pump side plugged in) then put the vacuum hose into a container, and put the car to the on position. You should see gas fly out of the hose and into the container. If it doesn't or is slow replace the pump.
If it does come out at a decent pace you may have to check the pressure.