Probably not, but maybe in some circumstances. I've had 4 alternator failures in my life.
1) Toyota MR2 - Alternator diode blew up (big bang and smoke) while driving on the expressway. No prior warning. Just BANG! and was suddenly on battery.
2) Toyota MR2 - Alternator casing broke causing the alternator to bind up and jam (with loud scraping and banging noises). No warning. Perhaps if I'd have visually inspected the alternator I might have seen a crack, but the alternator is not visually accessible anyways.
3) Mitsubishi Eclipse - Aftermarket voltage gauge installed, noted that at idle the voltage was down at battery type levels (12.3 instead of 13-14). Took that as my warning and swapped the alternator. Factory gauge/light gave no warning.
4) Mitsubishi Eclipse - Voltage regulator in the above replacement alternator failed after 9 months (still in warranty, but was unable to get the aftermarket manufacturer to honor the warranty, I now ONLY buy OEM alternators). Voltage was running too high (15-16 volts). Noticed that every single warning light on the dash would glow... So, perhaps that might be a warning to keep in mind for overvoltage failures. :-)